Types or Kinds of Adverb. There are nine parts of speech in English. They are nouns, pronouns, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, article, preposition, and interjection. Here, I want to share about adverb.
An adverb is a word or set of words that modifies (describes) verb. They give more detail about the action (verb).
He speaks slowly.
“Slowly” is an adverb for describing/modifying the way he speaks.
How does he speak? Slowly.
Adverb will generally answer the question “How”.
Some adverb are also used to modify an adjective.
Adverb that do this are: very, extremely, really, totally, absolutely, quite, fairly, well. These are normally placed before the adjective.
He speaks very slowly.
He is totally crazy.
Actually there are more kinds of adverb expressing different meaning than I’ll share, but for effectiveness of understanding I’ll share the common ones.
The following are some of the common types/kinds of adverb.
- Adverb of Frequency – always, sometimes, never, etc.
- Adverb of Manner – carefully, slowly, etc.
- Adverb of Place – here, there, at school, etc.
- Adverb of Time – yesterday, then, etc.
- Adverb of Degree – very, extremely, rather, etc.
- Adverb of affirmation – certainly surely
Adverb of frequency
An adverb of frequency tells us how often something is done or happens. Words used as adverb of frequency include again, almost, always, ever, frequently, generally, hardly ever, nearly, nearly always, never, occasionally, often, rarely, seldom, sometimes, twice, usually, and weekly.
He hardly ever say something nice to his wife.
He complained that she never smiled back.
Sometimes he stays late in the office to complete his work.
Adverb of Manner
Adverb of Manner tell us the manner or way in which something happens. They answer the question “how?“. Adverb of Manner mainly modify verbs.
He speaks slowly. (How does he speak?)
They helped us cheerfully. (How did they help us?)
Bondan drives his cars fast. (How does James Bond drive his cars?)
We normally use Adverb of Manner with dynamic (action) verbs, not with state verbs.
She came quickly.
They worked happily.
She looked beautifully.
Adverb of Place
Adverb of Place tell us the place where something happens. They answer the question “where?”. Adverb of Place mainly modify verbs.
Please sit here. (Where should I sit?)
They looked everywhere. (Where did they look?)
Two cars were parked in front of the hotel. (Where were two cars parked?)
Adverb of Time
Adverb of Time tell us something about the time that something happens. Adverb of Time mainly modify verbs.
They can answer the question “when?”:
She was born thirty years ago. (When was she born?)
He came yesterday. (When did he come?)
I want it now. (When do I want it?)
Adverb of Degree
Adverb of Degree tell us the degree or extent to which something happens. They answer the question “how . . .?” or “to what degree?”. Adverb of Degree can modify verbs, adjectives and other adverb.
Mary is very beautiful. (How beautiful is Mary?)
Her daughter is quite fat for her age.
I am rather full.
Adverb of affirmation
What is an adverb of affirmation? This is an adverb that is used to declare actions firmly.
Examples of adverb of affirmation are:
The teacher will certainly come to the class.
We will surely win the match.
The headmaster will definitely deliver a speech on indiscipline in the school.
All the highlighted adverb in the sentences above are all adverb of affirmation simply because they have been used to firmly declare the actions of their respective verbs.
Placement of Adverb
Adverb are usually placed after the verb:
He speaks clearly.
They play football well.
She wrote fast.
When there is an object, the adverb is usually placed after the verb + object:
I put the vase carefully on the table.
However, adverb are never positioned between the verb and the object.
I read the book quickly. – (Correct)
I read quickly the book. – (Incorrect)
Sometimes adverb are placed at the beginning of a clause.
Quickly, I changed my opinion.
Finally, she agreed to marry.
Occasionally, we sit on the sofa.
Hopefully it will be useful