Definition Purpose and Generic Structure of Memo

Definition Purpose and Generic Structure of Memo

Definition Purpose and Generic Structure of Memo

Definition Purpose and Generic Structure of Memo

       One more material of Functional Text we want to share. It is about Memo. In this case we want to share about the definition of Memo, its purpose, generic structure and of course by giving examples. ( Also read : Explanation about Procedure Text)

Definition of Memo

            A memo is a letter form that is written in a succinct, crisp and clear way that is addressed to a person. Usually the Memo content directly states the intent of the sender, without using parts of the contents of other letters such as, opening greetings, and greetings cover.

The Purpose of Memo

       The purpose of Memo is to communicate important things such as a policy change, instruction to conduct a meeting, instruction to do something, direction about something to get done immediately crucial message etc.

Generic Structure of Memo

The Memo consists of several parts (structures) of memo, among others, as follows:  

Addressee (Receiver)

Recipient of the message, the part to whom we write the memo, and where the recipient of the message is. read more

Generic Structure and Function of Advertisement

Generic Structure and Function of Advertisement

Generic Structure and Function of Advertisement

      Once again we want to share about Functional text. In this care we want to share about Generic Structure and Function of Advertisement. Although the title is Generic Structure and Function of Advertisement but in this session we will discuss about the definition, function, generic structure, language feature, kinds and the example of Advertisement. (also study : Purpose and Generic Structure of Invitation Text)

Let’s go to the material of Generic Structure and Purpose of Announcement:

Definition of Advertisement

      Advertisement text is a text consists of a public announcement commonly found in a newspaper, television, or internet advertising. Sometimes it is about a product, services, or an event for sale.

Function of Advertisement

      Based on the definition of Advertisement as above mentioned so there some function or purpose of Advertisement, they are:

  • To urge the listener or reader to buy or use the product or services being advertised.
  • To announce about a product, services, or an event to the public.
  • To convince of communication about a product, services, or an event so that the user effort to use the product or services..

Generic Structure of Advertisement

  1. Purpose: purpose built of the advertisement.
  2. Name of product: product names in advertising.
  3. User: user of the product.

Kinds of Advertisement

      Based on the media used, there are some kinds of advertisement, they are:

  1. Printed Advertisement

Printed advertisement is an advertisement that it is published by using printed media, such as newspaper, magazine or others.

2. Advertorial

      Advertorial is an advertisement formed as news. read more

Generic Structure of News Item Text

Generic Structure of News Item Text

News Item Text

Generic Structure of News Item Text

       Hello my beloved visitor! Nice to meet you again. Here I want to share another kind of text. It is about news item text. (Also read : Generic structure of Review Text)


       A news item text is a text which is grouped into the text genre of narration. The main function of narration is telling stories or informing about events in chronological order. The order in the narration can be based of time, place and the events themselves.


       News Item Text is used to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.

Generic Structure

The main Generic Structure of News Item Text:

  1. Newsworthy event(s)
  2. Elaboration ( background, participant, time, place )
  3. Resource of information

Language Features

The Language Features of News Item Text:

  1.  Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
  2. Focusing on circumstances
  3.  Using action verbs
  4.  Using saying verbs
  5.  Using adverbs : time, place and manner. (Also read other article at : Saksi sebuah perbuatan)

Examples of News Item Text

Town  Contaminated

Newsworthy events

Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncoveredevidence of another Soviet nuclearcatastrophe, which killed 10 sailors andcontaminated an entire town.

Background Events

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.


The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disasterspread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean-up operation to remove more than 600 tons of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Resource of Information A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

       The following text is another example of news item text is taken from the Jakarta post which is best in revealing what news item is and how it is structured. (Also read other article at : Fungsi dan Generic Structure Discussion Text) read more

Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition Text

Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition Text

Analytical Exposition Text

Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition Text

       Before discussing about the generic structure of Analytical exposition text, it’s better to know about the definition of it.


       Analytical exposition is a kind of text that belongs to the type of argumentation text where the text contains detailed author’s thinking about a phenomenon that is around. The social function of this text is to convince the reader that the presented topic is an important topic for discussion or attention by way of arguments or the opinions that support the idea or topic. (Also read : The Function of Discussion Text)


        To reveal the readers that something is the important case

Generic Structure:

  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Reiteration/Conclusion

Explanation about Generic Structure of Analytical exposition:

Thesis : In section thesis, the author introduces the topic or main idea that will be discussed. Thesis has always been in the first paragraph of analytical exposition. read more

Generic structure of Review Text

Generic structure of Review Text

Review Text

Generic structure of Review Text

       As we know that reading is one of skill that we must gather to increase our English among other skills so to increase our skill in reading, for this occasion I’d like to share about one kind of texts, it is about Review Text. (Also read : Generic structure of report text)

       A review is an evaluation of a publication, product, service, or company such as a movie (a movie review), video game, musical composition (music review of a composition or recording), book (book review); a piece of hardware like a car, home appliance, or computer; or an event or performance, such as a live music concert, play, musical theater show, or dance show.

Social Function of Review Text

       To criticize ( comment ) an art work, event for a public audience. Such as: work of art included movies, TV shows, books, plays, opera, recording, exhibitions, concerts and ballets

Generic structure of Review Text:


       Places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with other of its kind all through analogue with a non object or event.  read more

Generic Structure of Explanation Text

Generic Structure of Explanation Text

Explanation Text

Generic Structure of Explanation Text

       As we know there are many kinds of text in English, and I have share some of them. For this occasion, I want to share again about kinds of text and in this case I want to share about explanation text. In this post I will share about the definition, generic structure, language feature, and example of explanation text.  Let’s go to the topic. (Also read : Generic Structure of Narrative Text)

  1. Definition and purpose of Explanation

       Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.

  1. Generic structure of Explanation
  • General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.
  • Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
  • (Closing); atually this is not mentioned in explanation text, however, many people think that the last of paragraph is clossing, in which it is actually  part of sequenced explanation
  1. Language Feature
  • Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc.
  • Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc.
  • Using passive voice pattern
  • Using simple present tense
  1. Example and structure of the text

Making Paper from Woodchips

A general statement Wood-chipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.
A sequenced The wood-chipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.
explanation of Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.
why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips.
The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.
  The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.
Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.

Other Example of Explanation Text


     What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a food-making process that occurs in green plants. It is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means putting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compounds. (Also read other article at : Fungsi dan Ciri Kebahasaan Advertisement Text) read more

Generic Structure of Spoof Text

Generic Structure of Spoof Text

Spoof Text

Generic Structure of Spoof Text

       Hi my beloved visitor! Have you ever seen one comedy program on TV, Laugh Sketch (in Trans TV) or laughter (in Global TV)? Surely you are familiar with the program. The story-line in the sketch is called Spoof Text. Beginning of the story starts with a scene or a regular occurrence, then towards the end there is a scene or event that is not thought or unpredictable that makes the story funny. (Also read : TANJUNG PAPUMA BEACH JEMBER)

       In order to be clear about Spoof Text, in the following explanation I will try to share about the definition, the function, generic structure, language feature and the example of Spoof Text


       Spoof Text is a text which tells about factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Spoof text is very similar to recount text. Both spoof text and recount text tell about the past event with chronological order. However, the purpose of Spoof Text is to amuse reader with funny story. The story mostly is ended with an unpredictable event. The other different is Spoof Text has “twist” in the end of the story. read more

Generic Structure of Anecdote Text

Generic Structure of Anecdote Text

Anecdote Text

Generic Structure of Anecdote Text

       Hello my friends! How are you? Hopefully Allah always blesses us. Here I want to share another kind of text. In this case I want to share about Anecdote Tezt. (Also read : Generic Structure of Procedure Text)

Definition of Anecdote

     Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination.

Social function of Anecdote

The purpose of anecdote is to entertain the readers.

Generic structure of Anecdote text

  1. Abstract
  2. Orientation
  3. Crisis
  4. Incident
  5. Coda

Language Feature of Anecdote

  1. Using exclamation words;  it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
  2. Using imperativelisten to this
  3. Using rhetoric questiondo you know what?
  4. Using action verbgo, write, etc
  5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
  6. Using simple past tense

Example of anecdote text

Blessing behind Tragedy

       There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. (Also read other article at : Love Changes Everything In Blink Eye) read more

Generic Structure of Procedure Text

Generic Structure of Procedure Text

Procedure Text

Generic Structure of Procedure Text

       Hi my beloved visitor! How are you? After sharing Report Text, Descriptive Text and others, here I will share another kind of text. In this case I will share about Procedure Text. (Also read : The Function of Discussion Text)

Let’s discuss.

Definition of Procedure

       Procedure is kind of text which shows on how to make something completely. Procedure text is dominantly structured with imperative sentence since it actually an instruction. Procedure text usually explain the ingredient or material which is need, though sometime it is omitted, after that procedure text will explain step by step how to make the thing.

Purpose of a Procedure Text :

       To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of action or steps. The communicative purpose is to tell the steps of making or doing something.

Generic Structure of Procedure

  1. 1. Goal: showing the purpose
  2. Material: Telling the needed materials. (It can be optional)
  3. Step 1 up to finish. Describing the steps to achieve the purpose

Language Feature of Procedure

Ø     Using temporal conjunction

Ø     Using action verb read more

Generic structure of report text

Generic structure of report text

Report Text

Generic structure of report text

       Hello! How are you doing? Welcome to our web again. In this occasion I want to discuss about one type of text, in this case I want to discuss about Report Text. For detail of Report Text can be discussed below. (Also read : Purpose and Example Descriptive Text)

Function :

       Report text is a text which present information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analyses.

   Its social purpose is presenting information about something. They generally describe an entire class of things, whether natural or made: mammals, the planets, rocks, plants, countries of region, culture, transportation, and so on.


Generic Structure of Report Text :

  1. General Classification: General statements that describe the subject of the report, description, and classification.
  2. Description: tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behaviors.


Language features of Report text :

  • Nouns and noun phrases are used rather than personal pronouns. The use of personal pronouns is limited.
  • Most reports are written in the present tense.
  • Some reports use technical or scientific terms.
  • Linking verbs are used, eg. is, are, has, have, belong to, to give coherence.
  • Uses some action verbs (climb, eat).
  • Descriptive language is used that is factual rather than imaginative eg. color, shape, size, body parts, habits, behaviors, functions, uses. (Also read other article at : Jatuh Cinta Pada Diri Kamu)


Example of Report Text  :

Tyrannosaurus Rex

Tyrannosaurus Rex, sometimes just called T-Rex, is believed to be the largest and most fearsome predator on Earth’s land ever to have existed. 

This dinosaur once lived in the Cretaceous period approximately 68 to 65 million years ago. The T-Rex lived in a humid, semi-tropical environment, in open forests with nearby rivers and in coastal forested swamps. The seasons were mild. read more