History of Brunei Darussalam State
History of Brunei Darussalam State
Brunei Darussalam Kingdom State is one of the Islamic kingdom states in the north of Borneo bordering the South China Sea in the north, and Sarawak in the west, and east. The total area of Brunei is 5,765 km. (Also read : Brief History of Laos Country)
The Origin of the Name of Brunei Darussalam
Brunei is the oldest country among the kingdoms in Malay lands. The existence of the Old Brunei was obtained based on Arabic, Chinese and oral traditions. In the records of Chinese History known as Po-li, Po-lo, Poni or Puni and Bunlai. In Arabic records it is recognized by Dzabaj or Randj.
An oral tradition note was obtained from Syair Awang Semaun who said that Brunei came from words, “Baru-nah”, after the group of clans or Sakai tribes led by Pateh Berbai went to the Brunei River looking for a place to establish a new country. After getting the area which had a very strategic position which was flanked by hills, water, easy to recognize and for transportation and rich fish as a lot of food sources in rivers, so they said new words, which means the place was very good, well-pleased and appropriate in their hearts to establish the country as they wished. Then the new words, eventually changed to Brunei.
The History of the State of Brunei Darussalam
Historical researchers have believed that there was another kingdom before the founding of the present Sultanate of Brunei, which the Chinese called the Po-ni. Chinese and Arab records showed that this ancient trading kingdom existed at the mouth of the Brunei River in the early 7th or 8th century. The kingdom had a wide enough territory including Sabah, Brunei and Sarawak, which was centered in Brunei.
The Sultanate of Brunei was also a center of trade with China. This early kingdom was once conquered by the Kingdom of Srivijaya, which was centered in Sumatra in the early 9th century AD and subsequently ruled over northern Borneo and the Philippine archipelago. This kingdom was once a conqueror (vazal) of the Majapahit Kingdom, centered on Java. The name Brunai was listed in Negarakertagama as a subordinate area of Majapahit. Majapahit’s power was not long because after Hayam Wuruk died Brunai freed himself and returned as an independent country and an important trade center. At the beginning of the 15th century, the Kingdom of Malacca under the government of Parameswara had spread its influence and then took over Brunei’s trade.
This change led to the spread of Islam in the territory of Brunei by traders in the late 15th century. The fall of Malacca into the hands of the Portuguese in 1511, had led the Sultan of Brunei to take over the leadership of Islam from Melaka, so that the Sultanate of Brunei reached its glory from the 15th to the 17th century when it extended its power to the entire island of Borneo and to the Philippines to its north. During the reign of Sultan Bolkiah (1473 – 1521) which was famous for his wandering at sea, he even conquered Manila. (Also read other article at : Saksi Sejarah Dibalik Jabal Tsur)
The sultanate of Brunei expanded its influence north to Luzon and Sulu and to the south and west of Kalimantan; and in the reign of the ninth sultan, Hassan (1605 -1619), who established the arrangement of the rules of royal and royal customs which still remain to this day. In 1658 the Sultan of Brunei presented a portion of northeastern Kalimantan to Sultan Sulu in the Southern Philippines as a tribute to Sultan Sulu for completing the civil war between Sultan Abdul Mubin and Sultan Mohyidin. Disputes in the kingdom of Brunei are a factor that led to the downfall of the kingdom, which originated from the inner turmoil caused by power struggles between the royal heirs, also due to the influence of European colonial powers in this region, which sued traditional traditions, as well as destroyed Brunei’s economic principles and another sultanate of Southeast Asia.
In 1839, James Brooke from England came to Sarawak and became king there and attacked Brunei, so that Brunei lost its power over Sarawak. In return, he was appointed governor and then “Rajah” Sarawak in northwestern Borneo before expanding the area under his rule. On December 19, 1846, the island of Labuan and its surroundings was handed over to James Brooke. Little by little the territory of Brunei fell into British hands through its trading companies and governments until the territory of Brunei would later become independent under the British protectorate until it stood alone in 1984. At the same time, the British North Borneo Alliance was expanding its control in Northeast Borneo.
In 1888, Brunei became a country under the protection of the British empire by perpetuating the sovereignty of its country, but with foreign affairs remained under British control. In 1906, Brunei accepted another step of expanding British power when executive power was transferred to a British resident, who advised the Sultan in all matters, except for matters relating to local customs and religion. In 1959, Brunei declared a new ruling kingdom to rule except on the issue of foreign relations, security and defense in which these issues were the responsibility of Britain. (Also read other article at : Pengajian Full Kocak KH Syahroni Fadlan)
The attempt to form a legislative body in 1962 had to be forgotten because of an uprising by the opposition party, the Brunei People’s Party, which wanted to unite the states of Brunei, Sarawak and North Borneo into the Unitary State of North Borneo, but with British assistance, this rebellion was successfully eradicated. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the kingdom of Brunei at that time rejected plans (although initially showing interest) to join Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak, and Tanah Melayu to form Malaysia and finally the Sultan of Brunei when it wanted to form an independent state. In 1967, Omar Ali Saifuddin III had stepped down and installed his eldest son Hassanal Bolkiah, becoming the 29th Sultan of Brunei.
His Majesty was also pleased to become Minister of Defense after Brunei attains complete independence and is propped up with the title of His Majesty the Begawan Sultan. In 1970, the administrative center of the Brunei Town state, was renamed Bandar Seri Begawan to commemorate His Majesty’s services. His Majesty died in 1986. On 4 January 1979, Brunei and the United Kingdom signed a Cooperation and Friendship Agreement. On 1 January 1984, Brunei Darussalam succeeded in achieving full independence. Brunei currently has a smaller area than in the past, bordering Sarawak from the west to the east of the region, and the north bordering the South China Sea.
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