Explanation about Present Perfect Tense. After sharing about Simple Present Tense in the previous post, now I want to continue sharing about grammar. In this case I want to share about Present Perfect Tense. For complete information, let’s go to the following explanation.
( + ) Subject + has/have + V3
Dandy has done his homework.
We have discussed our plan.
( – ) Subject + has/have + not + V3
Dandy has not done his homework.
We have not discussed our plan.
( ? ) Has/Have + Subject + V3
Has Dandy done his homework?
Have we discussed our plan?
Note: “has” is used for subject He, She, It.
“have” is used for subject I, You, We, They.
We use the present perfect when we want to look back from the present to the past. We can use it to look back on the recent past.
- I’ve broken my watch so I don’t know what time it is.
- They have cancelled the meeting.
- She’s taken my copy. I don’t have one.
- The sales team has doubled its turnover.
When we look back on the recent past, we often use the words ‘just’ ‘already’ or the word ‘yet’ (in negatives and questions only).
- We’ve already talked about that.
- She hasn’t arrived yet.
- I’ve just done it.
- They’ve already met.
- They don’t know yet.
- Have you spoken to him yet?
- Have they got back to you yet?
It can also be used to look back on the more distant past.
- We’ve been to Singapore a lot over the last few years.
- She’s done this type of project many times before.
- We’ve mentioned it to them on several occasions over the last six months.
- They’ve often talked about it in the past.
When we look back on the more distant past, we often use the words ‘ever’ (in questions) and ‘never’.
- Have you ever been to Bali?
- Has he ever talked to you about the problem?
- I’ve never met Rahmat and Sally.
- We’ve never considered going abroad.
Using Already and Yet
“Already” means that something happened earlier than we expected. With Present Perfect already usually goes after have or has and before the main verb.
– We’ve already had our breakfast.
– When are you going to do your homework?
– But I’ve already done it!
– Do you want a cup of coffee?
– No, thanks. I’ve already had one.”
“Yet” means that something that we expected has happened or hasn’t happened. We usually put it at the end of a sentence.
– Has the post arrived yet?
– Have you done your homework?
– Not yet.
– Haven’t you got ready yet? Look at the time!
Using For and Since
We use for with a period of time,
for five years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for two hours
I have worked here for five years.
We have taught at this school for a long time.
We use since with a point in time when the action started,
Since this morning, since last week, since yesterday
Since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 o’clock
They have worked here since 1990.
I have taught at this school since 1997.