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Definition and Kinds of adjective

Kinds of Adjective

  Definition and Kinds of adjective. After sharing kinds of noun and kinds of pronoun in the previous post, now I want to share another part of speech. It is about kinds of Adjective. So let’s go to the explanation.

Definition

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An adjective is a word or set of words that modifies (describes) a noun or pronoun. Adjectives may come before the word they modify.

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Examples:

That is a cute puppy.

She likes a high school senior.

Adjectives may also follow the word they modify:

Examples:

That puppy looks cute.

Kinds of Adjective

  • Descriptive Adjective or adjective of quality
  • Adjective of quantity
  • Demonstrative Adjective
  • Possessive Adjective
  • Indefinite Adjective
  • Interrogative adjective
  • Comparative Adjective
  • Superlative Adjective

Descriptive adjective

Descriptive adjectives are the most numerous of the different types of adjectives. These adjectives describe nouns that refer to action, state, or quality (careless, dangerous, excited, sad, black, white, big, small, long, fat, English, Mediterranean, three-cornered).

  • Dangerous chemicals
  • Green vegetables
  • A square box
  • A big house
  • A tall tree
  • A cold morning
  • A true story

Adjective of quantity

An adjective of quantity tells us the number (how many) or amount (how much) of a noun.

  • He has eaten three apples.
  • I don’t have much money.
  • There is so much wine for the guests.
  • This long, thin centipede has many legs.

Demonstrative adjective

A demonstrative adjective (this, that, these, those) shows the noun it modifies is singular or plural and whether the position of the noun is near or far from the person who is speaking or writing. A demonstrative adjective also points out a fact about the noun. read more

Reported or Indirect and Direct Speech

Direct and Indirect Speech

 Reported or Indirect and Direct Speech. In communication we often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this we can use direct / quoted speech, or indirect / reported speech.

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Direct Speech

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 When we say about ourselves information directly to someone, it is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech). And when we use direct speech in writing, we place the words spoken between quotation marks (” “) and there is no change in these words.

Examples

She says, “What time will you be home?”

She said, “What time will you be home?” and I said, “I don’t know!”

“There’s a fly on my soup!” screamed Rita.

Bandi said, “There’s a goat outside the window.”

Indirect Speech

 When we say to someone about what another person has said to us, it is called Indirect Speech (sometimes called reported speech). And when we use indirect speech in writing, we don’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said. read more

Definition and Kinds of Pronoun

Kinds of Pronoun

  Definition and Kinds of Pronoun. Hello my dearest visitors, have a nice meeting again.

 In the previous post I have shared about Nouns and their classification. Have you read it? I hope so. In this occasion I will share the topic related to Nouns. It’s about Pronoun. Then let’s start for understanding about Pronoun.

Definition

 Generally (but not always) pronouns stand for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun, an individual or individuals or thing or things (the pronoun’s antecedent) whose identity is made clear earlier in the text.

For instance,

The students of Junior High School prepare for test. They have study hard every day.

They here is a pronoun referring to the students of Junior High School.

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Not all pronouns will refer to an antecedent, however.

Everyone here like to watch film.

The word “everyone” has no antecedent.

Kinds of Pronouns:

  1. Personal
  2. Demonstrative
  3. Indefinite
  4. Relative
  5. Reflexive
  6. Intensive
  7. Interrogative
  8. Reciprocal

This kinds of Pronouns can be made a table as,

Pronoun
PersonalDemonstrativeIndefiniteRelative
I

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Me

You

He

Him

She

Her

It

We

Us

You

They

Them

This

That

These

Those

Everybody

Anybody

Somebody

All

Each

Every

Some

None

One

Who

Whom

Which

Whoever

Whomever

Whichever

That

Pronoun
ReflexiveIntensiveInterrogativeReciprocal
Myself

Yourself

Yourselves

Himself

Herself

Itself

Ourselves

Themselves

 

Myself

Yourself

Herself

Ourselves

themselves

Who

Whom

Whose

Which

What

Whoever

Whomever

Whichever

Whatever

Each other

One another

Explanation

Kinds of Pronouns:

  1. Personal Pronouns

 Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it). Personal pronouns may also take different forms depending on number (usually singular or plural), grammatical or natural gender, case, and formality. The term “personal” is used here purely to signify the grammatical sense; personal pronouns are not limited to people and can also refer to animals and objects (as the English personal pronoun it usually does). read more

The Pattern and Function of Future Tense

The Pattern and Function of Future Tense

  The Pattern and Function of Future Tense. After sharing about present and past tense, now it is time for sharing about future tense.

 There are several different ways in English that we can talk about the future. In this session we are introducing to the most important ones:

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  1. be going to
  2. will

Explanation

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Be going to

Form

( + ) Subject + am/is/are + going to + V1 + C

   I am going to study hard.

 She is going to write a short story.

( – ) Subject + am/is/are + not + going to + V1 + C

   I am not going to study hard.

 She is not going to write a short story.

( ? ) am/is/are + Subject + going to + V1 + C + ?

   Are you going to study hard?

 Is she going to write a short story?

Function

 The expression “be going to” is used in talking about a plan for the future that we have already thought about.

We’re going to buy a new car next month. read more

Difference Countable and Uncountable Noun

Difference of Countable and Uncountable Noun

   Difference of Countable and Uncountable Noun. After sharing about nouns in the preceded post, now I want to share more about a part of noun classifications. They about countable noun and uncountable noun.

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 It’s important to distinguish between countable and uncountable nouns in English because their usage is different in regards to both determiners and verbs.

Countable nouns

 Countable nouns are the names of separate items which can be counted. They have a singular and a plural form. The singular form can use the determiner “a” or “an“. And in the plural we can combine with numbers, many, few, some, any, etc.

Examples:

  • Did you buy a newspaper today? ~ I bought two newspapers, ‘The Jakarta Post’ and ‘The Mirror’.
  • Have we got any oranges in the house? ~ We’ve got some apples but we don’t have any oranges.
  • She has three dogs.
  • I own a house.
  • I would like two books please.
  • How many friends do you have?

Uncountable Nouns

 Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot count with numbers. These nouns are the names of things that cannot be counted and have only a singular form. These nouns use singular verbs in a sentence. They do not have plural forms. They generally refer to drinks, liquids, grains, gases, materials, metals etc. The abstract nouns are also uncountable. read more

Kind of Nouns based on the Classification

Kind of Nouns

  Kind of Nouns based on the Classification. Nouns are simply the names we give to everything around us, whether it is a person, an event, a place or an object, etc. Every particular name used to define something is a noun. E.g. : Amsterdam, Anita, Blackberry, Honesty, Waiter, etc.

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 Based on the classification, Nouns are classified into; Common Noun, Proper Noun, Collective Noun, Abstract Noun, Countable Noun and Uncountable Noun.

  1. COMMON NOUNS

 These are the nouns that are used to denote a general category of people, places or things. They are capitalized only when they are at the beginning of a sentence. Common Nouns don’t refer to something specific rather they are a general term used for every noun of a particular kind or type.

e.g. Girl, cricket, town, bat, dog, cock, coffee, etc.

  1. PROPER NOUNS

 These nouns are the names of specific people and places. These nouns also refer to the names of the days of weeks and months, and also the various names for religions, organizations, institutions, etc. Proper nouns basically refer to the names that are specific to that particular noun.  These nouns are always capitalized as they need to be distinct from other nouns. read more

The Pattern of Past Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense

The Pattern of Past Continuous Tense. When we are talking about Past continuous Tense, it means that we are talking about the activity happens in the past. However it is rather different to Simple Past Tense. The past continuous is formed from the past tense of “be” with the – ing form of the “verb” or it can be formed by constructing as follows,

Pattern

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( + ) Subject + was/were + Ving

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   Suzan was washing dishes.

 They were playing kites.

( – ) Subject + was/were + not + Ving

  Suzan was not washing dishes.

 They were not playing kites.

( ? ) Was/Were + Subject + Ving

  Was Suzan washing dishes?

 Were they playing kites?

Note:           “Was” is used for subject He, She, It.

Were” is used for subject I, You, We, They

Usage

  1. We use the simple past tense to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past.
  2. We can use it to talk about a specific point in time.
  3. We use the past continuous to talk about past events which went on for a period of time.
  4. We use it when we want to emphasize the continuing process of an activity or the period of that activity. (If we just want to talk about the past event as a simple fact, we use the past simple.)

Examples:

  • While I was driving home, Sely was trying desperately to contact me.
  • Were you expecting any visitors?
  • Sorry, were you sleeping?
  • I was just making some coffee.
  • I was thinking about him last night.
  • In the 1990s few people were using mobile phones.
  • read more

    Type Degrees of Comparison

    Type Degrees of Comparison

    Degrees of Comparison

    Type Degrees of Comparison

     There are mainly three types of degrees of comparison. They are namely:

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    1. Positive degree
    2. Comparative degree
    3. Superlative degree

    Positive degree

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     Positive Degree of comparison shows common characteristic of objects or things or nouns. Positive degree is used when there is just one thing to be described or talk about and nothing to compare it with. (also read : List Degrees of Comparison)

     “That song is fast.” Here, fast is a positive-degree of adjective where it describes the song without drawing any comparisons with anything else.

     Positive degree is also used for comparing the same characteristic of persons or things.

    For instance: as tall as, as expensive as, as old as and others.

    Pattern:

    Subject + to be + as + adjective + as …..

    Example :

    The girl is as beautiful as her.

    My house is not as clean as your house.

    Is your father as high as my father?

    Comparative degree

     Comparative degree of comparison is used for comparing two persons or two things with each other. (Also read other article at : Jenis Jenis Peribahasa Beserta Contoh) read more

    The Function of Imperative Sentence

    The Function of Imperative Sentence

    The Function of Imperative

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    The Function of Imperative Sentence

     How are you going my beloved visitors? Are you fine? As we know that English consists of four skills. They are listening, speaking, reading and writing. However, we also need other skills to support those skills. (Also read : FUNCTION OF PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE)
     In this occasion, I will share about one supported skill, i.e: The Imperative Sentence.
     There are some functions of imperative sentence in English, such as:
    1. As an order,
    2. As a warning,
    3. As an appeal,
    4. As an advice,
    5. As a suggestion,
    6. As an instruction
    7. And in some cases as a request to another person, to a group of people or to animals.

     It is very easy to form the imperative sentence: Simply take the verbs’ infinitive form (without the “to” infinitive indicator). Usually the verb will be placed at the beginning of the sentence. (Also read other article at : Wise Words from Reader)

    V + C + !

     The examples below are used if a person gives an order to another person or to a group of people.
    For example:
    Come to my house!
    Keep silent!
    Clean your face! read more

    Pattern and usage of Simple Past Tense

    Pattern and usage of Simple Past Tense

    Pattern and usage of Simple Past Tense

    Pattern and usage of Simple Past Tense

     After sharing about Simple Present, Present Continuous and others for grammar, now is the time for me to share other kinds of tenses. In this case is sharing about Simple Past Tense. In this share I will share the pattern, the usage, time signal and examples so let’s discuss. (Also read : Types of Conditional Sentence)

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    Pattern

    There are two pattern of Simple Past Tense

    1.   ( + ) Subject + Verb2

     e.g They worked together .

      ( – ) Subject + did not + Verb1

     e.g They did not work together.

      ( ? ) Did + Subject + Verb1

     e.g Did they work together?

    1. ( + ) Subject + was/were

     e.g She was happy.

     They were happy

      ( – ) Subject + was/were + not

     e.g She was not happy.

     They were not happy

      ( ? ) Was/Were + Subject

     e.g Was she happy? read more