Brief History of Thailand Kingdom
Brief History of Thailand Kingdom
The Bronze Age culture is thought to have started since 5600 years ago in Thailand (Siam). Then came various immigrants including the Mon, Khmer and Thai tribes. One big kingdom centered in Palembang, Srivijaya, had ruled to this country. many arts and crafts in Palembang with Thailand are similar. (Also read : Brief History of Myanmar Country)
In the early 1200s, the Thais established small kingdoms in Lanna, Phayao and Sukhothai. In 1238, a fully independent Thai kingdom was founded at Sukhothai (‘Dawn of Happiness’). In 1300, Sukhothai was conquered by the kingdom of Ayutthaya, until it was finally captured by Burma in 1767.
The fall of Ayutthaya was a big blow to the Thais, but soon King Taksin succeeded in driving out Burma and establishing his capital at Thon Buri. In 1782 the first King of the Chakri Dynasty to power to this day established a new capital in Bangkok.
Mongkut King (Rama IV) and his son, Chulalongkorn King (Rama V), were highly respected for successfully saving Thailand from western colonialism.
Origin of Thailand
The origin of Thailand had traditionally been associated with a short-lived kingdom, the Sukhothai Kingdom which was founded in 1238. This kingdom was then continued by the Ayutthaya Kingdom which was founded in the mid-14th century and was larger than Sukhothai.
However, despite strong pressure, Thailand remained as the only country in Southeast Asia that was never colonized by European countries, although Western influences, including the threat of violence, resulted in changes in the 19th century and granted much leeway to traders. Britain.
A bloodless revolution in 1932 led to the start of a constitutional monarchy. Formerly known as Siam, the country changed its name to Thailand in 1939 and thereafter, after once changing back to its old name after World War II.
During the World War II war, Thailand was allied with Japan; but when World War II ended, Thailand became an ally of the United States. Several coups took place in the years after the end of the war, but Thailand began to move towards democracy since the 1980s.
Thai History from the Kingdom Age to the Modern Age
The Kingdom of Skhothai
The Sukhothai Kingdom was one of the oldest kingdom in Thailand centered around the city of Sukhothai, established from 1238 to 1438. Previously this kingdom was part of the Khmer Kingdom.
At the height of its triumph under the third king Ramkhamhaeng, Sukhothai was thought to extend from Burma, to modern Laos, as well as to the south on the Malay Peninsula.
After Ramkhamhaeng’s death, Sukhothai weakened and various subordinate kingdoms began to break away. In 1438, the status of Sukhothai changed to just the province of Ayutthaya.
Ayutthaya Kingdom was founded in 1350 King of Ramathibodi I (Uthong), who established Ayyuthaya as the capital of his kingdom and defeated the Sukhothai Kingdom dynasty in 1376. During its development, Ayyuthaya was very active in trading with various foreign countries such as China, India, Japan, Persia and several European countries.
After going through the bloodshed of the inter-dynasty power struggle, Ayutthaya entered its golden century in the second quarter of the 18th century. (Also read other article at : Unforgetful Adventure on Campground)
During this relatively peaceful period, art, literature and learning flourished. The war that ensues was against outsiders. Ayyuthaya began fighting against the Nguyen dynasty (ruler of South Vietnam) in 1715 to fight for power over Cambodia.
Nevertheless the biggest threat came from Burma with the leader of King Alaungpaya who came to power only after conquering the Shan tribes.
In 1765 Thai territory was attacked by two large Burmese troops, who then united in Ayutthaya. Ayutthaya finally surrendered and was burned in 1767 after a protracted siege.
Kingdom of Siam
After the Burmese invasion which burned down the capital of Ayutthaya, General Taksin founded a new kingdom in 1769 which had its capital at Thonburi (now included in Bangkok) and reunited the former kingdom of Ayutthaya.
Taksin was then considered insane and executed in 1782, and succeeded by General Chakri, who became the first king of the Chakri dynasty by the name of Rama II.
The same year he founded a new capital in Bangkok, across the Chao Phraya river from the old capital founded by General Taksin. In the 1790s Burma was successfully expelled from Siam.
The successors of Rama I had to face the threat of European colonialism after Britain’s victory in Burma in 1826. In the same year Siam signed an agreement with the United Kingdom, and in 1833 Siam established diplomatic relations with the United States.
The British-Siamese Treaty of 1909 established the boundaries of Siam with Malaya, while a series of agreements with France set an eastern boundary with Laos and Cambodia. The 1932 coup ended the absolute monarchy in Thailand, and began the rise of the modern Thai empire.
The 1932 coup changed Siam into a modern Thailand in the form of a constitutional monarchy. The change in name from Siam to Thailand was only announced by Prime Minister Plaek Pibulsonggram (Phibun) in 1939. The government of Prime Minister Phibun was marked by the rise of Thai nationalism.
In January 1941, Thailand invaded French Indochina, and began the Thai-French war. Thailand won Laos, while France won the Koh-Chang naval battle. The war ended through Japanese mediation. France was forced by Japan to release the disputed territory to Thailand.
In World War II Thailand gave Japan the right to move its troops in Thai territory towards Malaya, which at that time was controlled by the British. (Also read other article at : Pangerten Ciri – ciri lan Tuladha Geguritan)
In December 1941 Thailand and Japan agreed to a military alliance that contained a Japanese agreement to help Thailand reclaim territory captured by Britain and France (Shan, Malaya, Singapore, parts of Yunnan, Laos and Cambodia). In return, Thailand would help Japan face the Allies.
After Japan’s defeat, Thailand was treated as a losing country to Britain and France. But US support for Thailand limits the losses suffered by Thailand.
Thailand had to return the territories it acquired from the two European countries, but Thailand itself was not occupied. Thailand later became an ally of the United States facing the threat of communism from its neighbors.
In 1967, together with Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines, Thailand established ASEAN and up to now it is active as a member in it.
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