Brief History of Philippines
Brief History of Philippines
Philippines is a republic country in Southeast Asia, north of Indonesia and Malaysia. Philippines is an island nation. This country consists of 7,107 islands. Philippines is often considered the only Southeast Asian country where the influence of Western culture is very strong. Do you know why? This is because Philippines has a long history as below.
Early History of the Standing State of Philippines
The written relics of Philippines began around the 8th century based on the findings of copper plates near Manila. From the writing on the plate it is known that Philippines was under the influence of the Srivijaya kingdom. However, this written evidence is so little that historians of Philippines still assume that Philippine history began in the era of colonialism. (Also read : Brief History of Singapore Country)
The first arrival of Westerners was recorded that the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on Homonhon Island, southeast of Samar on March 16, 1521. Prior to Magellan’s arrival, there were Negrito tribes exploring the Philippine islands, but they were later replaced by Austronesians. These groups could be classified as hunter and gatherer tribes, knight communities, small plutocracy, and maritime kingdoms, which then grew into kingdoms, confederations and sultanates.
Precolonial countries such as the kingdoms of Butuan, Cebu, Tondo, Maysapan, Maynila, the Madyaas confederation, the State of Mai, and the sultanates of Sulu and also Maguindanao. These small countries had developed since at least the 10th century. Although these kingdoms achieved complex political and social arrangements, and carried out trade with areas now in China, India, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia, nothing succeeded in uniting the islands (now Philippines) in the 20th century.
Spanish colonization and settlement began with the arrival of the Miguel López de Legazpi expedition in 1565, who founded the San Miguel settlement on the island of Cebu, and more settlements to the north, reaching the Manila bay on the island of Luzon in 1571. In Manila, they established a new city and thus began the colonial era of the Spanish empire, which lasted more than three centuries. (Also read other article at : Ciri-ciri Sistem Pemerintahan Parlementer)
The Spanish government tried to achieve political unification throughout the archipelago, which had previously consisted of various kingdoms and independent communities, but to no avail. The unification of the Philippines only succeeded in the 20th century.
Spain introduced the Western European version of printing, and the Gregorian calendar, as well as smallpox, venereal disease, leprosy, war with firearms. The Spanish East Indies were governed and administered as part of the New Spanish Christianity of Mexico from 1565 to 1821, and administered directly from Madrid from 1821 until the end of the Spanish-American War in 1898, except for a short interval of British occupation in the Philippines (1762-1764). Chinese, British, Portuguese, Dutch, Japanese and indigenous traders complained that Spain suppressed trade by imposing Spanish monopoly. Spanish missionaries tried to convert Christians and were generally successful in the northern and central lowlands, eventually. They established schools, universities and hospitals, mainly in Manila and the settlement of Spanish fortresses.
The Philippine Revolution against Spain began in April 1896, culminating in two years later with the proclamation of independence and the establishment of the First Republic of the Philippines. But the Paris Treaty, at the end of the Spanish-American war, transferred control of Philippines to the United States. This agreement was not recognized by the Philippine government, which on June 2, 1899, declared war on the United States. The subsequent Philippine-American War resulted in large numbers of casualties. Philippine President Emilio Aguinaldo was arrested in 1901 and the United States government declared the conflict officially ended in 1902. (Also read other article at : Ungkapan Indah karena Cinta)
Philippine leaders generally accepted that the US had won, but hostilities continued and only began to diminish in 1913. US colonial rule began in 1905 with very limited local autonomy. Partial autonomy (commonwealth status) was granted in 1935, with full independence from the US planned in 1946. Preparations for a sovereign state were completely interrupted by the occupation of the Japanese Empire during World War II.
The Philippines finally gained its independence (de facto) on July 4, 1946. It was these foreign colonial times which greatly influenced the culture and society of Philippines. The country is known for having a strong Roman Catholic Church and is one of the two predominantly Catholic countries in Asia besides Timor Leste.
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