Brief History of Malaysia
Brief History of Malaysia
On 31 August 1957, the BBC news agency recorded the gathering of thousands of people at Merdeka Stadium, Kuala Lumpur, to witness and congratulate the transfer of power from the British Empire to the Federation of Malaya. For this, every August 31 is celebrated as “Malaysian Independence Day”.
The struggle of the nationalists on the Malay Peninsula, as in Indonesia, was also influenced by the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945, the Encyclopedia Britannica noted. Malaya and Borneo were two important regions because they provided natural resources for Japan. The Rising Sun troops began the invasion of the Malay Peninsula in 1941 and achieved success in 1942. (Also read : History of Tangerang City)
After three years in power, Japan’s politics and economy were paralyzed not only by the atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but also the instability of the Malayan region. Communist groups that on average were of Chinese descent carried out guerrilla resistance in the forest and carried out a rebellion in North Borneo.
Elsewhere, inter-ethnic conflict was heating up again. Nevertheless, almost all the inhabitants of the Malay peninsula felt the same joy over the Japanese defeat.
Before being taken over by Japan, Sarawak and North Borneo were British protectorates. When World War II ended in the Pacific, Britain regained control of the two regions. At that time Sarawak faced opposition from the Malays who did not accept British control. Meanwhile, the establishment of the British colony in North Borneo led to the movement of the capital from Sandakan to Jesselton (now Kinibalu City).
For the sake of regional stability, the British formed the Malaya Union (Malaya Union) which would transform the Malay states plus Penang and Malacca into one colony. His vision, according to Britain, was preparation for regional independence. There are exceptions to Singapore and North Borneo because in territories and other considerations, these two regions are considered difficult to unite.
This policy was strongly opposed by the Malay nationalists because the Malayan Union was seen as weakening the Malay rulers and granting citizenship to ethnic Chinese, Indians and other minorities.
In fact the British were equal because Chinese and Indians were also loyal to England during WW I and II. However, the harsh stance of the Malay nationalists was able to change the attitude of the royal sultans in the Malay Peninsula from those who had supported the British, and then became the opposition.
In 1946, the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) was founded by Dato Onn bin Jaafar, Chief Minister of Johor, so that the struggle for liberation of Malaya became more organized. UMNO gave birth to a series of demonstrations to a boycott that made Britain dizzy. Negotiations between UMNO and Britain in 1948 resulted in the Malayan Federation, the concept of uniting the Malay Peninsula with the guarantee of special rights for Malays and the position of the sultans to be maintained. (Also read other article at : Kecewa Membelah Relung Hati)
The Malaysian Federation consists of a combination of nine Malay kingdoms plus two provinces, namely Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Perlis, Selangor, and Terengu. The federal government was led by the Prime Minister, and the capital was established in Kuala Lumpur.
One problem finished, but another problem was more complicated. The communist group driven by the Malaysian Communist Party (MCP), which had been formed in 1930 as the backbone of the struggle against Japan, moved into the jungle since 1948 and heated up guerrilla resistance to drive out new invaders, the British Government. This resistance lasted for 12 years and was known as the Malayan Emergency period.
To quell the MCP’s resistance, Britain isolated the MCP from its supporting base. The trick was that people of Chinese descent were given economic and political concessions and rebuilt the illegal settlements of the Chinese people into “New Villages”. This strategy was effective, including the mobilization of Malays who were armed to fight the MCP on the battlefield.
Since 1949, the MCP campaign had begun to lose its momentum and the number of new members recruited by the party had declined sharply. Although the MCP successfully killed the British High Commissioner Sir Henry Gurney in October 1951, the strategy carried out by the British increasingly alienated moderate Chinese’s descendant from the influence of the MCP.
Eventually the MCP’s strength diminished. By 1960, they had lost almost all of their troops so the Malayan government announced the end of the Malayan Emergency.
Back again to 1949, as Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard Y. Andaya commented in A History of Malaysia, the promise of independence encouraged the British Government to start negotiations with various leaders of the Malaya Federation member groups. Among them there was UMNO as the representative with the most supporters and the Chinese Malayan Association (MCA) which was formed in 1949 by wealthy businessmen of the descendant of Chinese.
UMNO, led by a charismatic moderate figure Tunku Abdul Rahman, together with the MCA and the Malayan Indian Congress later formed a coalition and won the national legislative elections in 1955. Only one seat was won by them.
The three formed a permanent ruling coalition which was originally called the Alliance Party and was later named Barisan Nasional (BN). BN unites ethnic-based parties and a variety of ideologies ranging from moderate-conservative with UMNO as its main power. (Also read other article at : Ciri dan Tokoh Aliran Surealisme)
During 1955-1956, UMNO, MCA, and the United Kingdom made constitutional agreements on the principle of citizenship which were of equal character for all races and ethnicities. Instead, the MCA agreed that the head of the Malayan Federation would be withdrawn from the ranks of the Sultan of Malay, the official language of Malay, and Malay education, and economic development would be promoted as well as subsidized by the government.
The impact of this policy was that the Malayan Federation would be run by Malay elites and the Malays would continue to dominate the civil service, the armed forces, and the police. However, Chinese and Indians would have proportional representation in the cabinet and parliament so that they could run states where their ethnic majority was counted and they are economically guaranteed.
In addition to taking care of bureaucratic matters, negotiations for the independence of the Malayan Federation continued to run by UMNO and its coalition with the British government. Britain finally softened, coupled with the consideration that the communist uprising in the mid-1950s had also begun to subside and they were no longer considered a major threat to the stability of the new state.
An agreement was reached on 8 February 1956 for the Federation of Malaya to become independent from the British Empire. However, for logistical and administrative reasons, the proclamation of independence could only be carried out next year, namely on 31 August 1957 at Merdeka Stadium, Kuala Lumpur.
The independence of the Malaysian Federation became an important milestone for the formation of the Malaysian Federation on 16 September 1963, which is now celebrated as Malaysia Day on 16 September. Challenges as a new country emerged from many parties, including opposition from Indonesia under the command of President Sukarno.
Other ripples accompanied Malaysia’s journey of 62 years of independence, starting from nothing until now becoming one of the important forces in Southeast Asia.
That’s all the post about the Brief History of Malaysia we can share for this occasion. We hope the post about the Brief History of Malaysia above can improve our knowledge about the Brief History of Malaysia. (Also read other article at : Penilaian Harian 1 IPA Kelas 9)