Brief History Independence of Vietnam
Brief History Independence of Vietnam
Vietnam has a history that is full of struggle. Vietnam was formed through a long and quite winding process. Vietnam received support from the People’s Republic of China (PRC), which was led by Mao Tse Tung. The formation of the Vietnamese state was inseparable from the role of the Vet Minh forces which gathered power in 1949. (Also read : Brief History of Malaysia)
Brief History of Independence of Vietnam
In 179 BC until 938, Vietnam came under the rule of the Chinese kings. In 938, under the leadership of Ngo Quyen, at Bach Dang, successfully defeated the Chinese army, which it was the end of the occupation of the Chinese dynasty. After that, the Vietnam Monarchy came under the Government of the Ngo Dynasty (938 – 969), Dynasty Dinli (969 – 979), Le Dynasty (980 – 1009), Ly Dynasty (1010-1225), Tran Dynasty (1224 – 1400), Ho Dynasty (1401 – 1406).
In the period 1407 – 1427, Vietnam was again ruled by the Dynasty of China, namely: Ming Dynasty. Vietnam was again ruled by the Vietnam Monarchy, namely the Le Dynasty (1428 – 1527). In 1527 the Le Dynasty fell and was replaced by the Mac Dynasty (1527 – 1592), however, since then there have been many anti-Mac Dynasty rebellions that have divided Vietnam and led to a civil war, namely the Le-Mac War (1543-1592), War Trinh-Nguyen (1627 -1672), where the country was then divided into 2 (two), namely: Dang Ngoai (north) with King Trinh and Dang Trong (South) with King Nguyen who founded the capital at Phu Xuan (now Hue). The Tay Son (Farmer’s Movement in 1771) succeeded in bringing down King Nguyen and King Trinh and uniting a divided nation for more than 200 years. In 1802, the Tay Son Dynasty was defeated by the Nguyen Anh Dynasty (1802-1945) who gave the country a new name as Dai Nam with its capital Hue.
The presence of the French in Vietnam began with the entry of French missionaries into Vietnam around the 16th century. In 1858, France invaded Da Nang and began a war against Vietnam. France occupied the South for more than 20 years and then the North in 1883 with its attack on the capital of Hue, and forced the Nguyen Dynasty to sign the Peace Agreement 1883 – 1884 which recognized French rule throughout Vietnam.
France occupied Vietnam until the entry of the Japanese army. After Japan surrendered to the Allies in August 1945, Vietnam on September 2, 1945 declared its independence. But then the French wanted to re-enter Vietnam on the grounds of helping arrange Japanese surrender to the Allies. Resistance and fighting against France erupted again, where finally in 1954, the last French fortress at Dien Bien Phu fell which marked the end of the French occupation in Vietnam. (Also read other article at : Keberadaan Pelangi Menurut Ilmuwan)
On February 3, 1930 the Communist Party of Indochina was founded under the leadership of Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh), who carried out the liberation struggle with the aim of achieving: National Independence, Democracy and Socialism. Through movements such as the Soviet Tinh Movement (1930-1931), the Democratic Movement (1936-1939), and the Movement for National Rescue during the Second World War (1939-1945), the Vietnamese People achieved victory in the August 1945 Revolution. September 1945, housed in Ba Dinh Square, Hanoi, President of Ho Chi Minh, read out the Declaration of Independence which gave birth to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
The first war to defend independence against France ended in the glorious victory of the Vietnamese army at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The second war defended independence against the United States which ended through the historic campaign of Ho Chi Minh with a great victory of the North Vietnamese army in the autumn of 1975, with the fall of the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon (now called Ho Chi Minh City), April 30, 1975. That date is then commemorated as Liberation Day each year. (Also read other article at : Segenap Rasa Bukan Sekedar Kata)
After the unification of North and South Vietnam, on July 2, 1976, Vietnam was proclaimed the Socialist Republic of Vietnam until now. In April 1977, along the 1,000 Km Vietnam-Cambodia border there was a Vietnam-Cambodia war. Responding to the Cambodian Solidarity Front’s call for National Salvation, in January 1979, a Vietnamese Volunteer force together with the patriotic force of Cambodia succeeded in capturing Phnom Penh. Since 1982, Vietnamese volunteers have been gradually withdrawn from Cambodia, and after the seventh withdrawal, September 26, 1989, all Vietnamese volunteers and their war equipment were withdrawn back to Vietnam. Meanwhile, on February 17, 1979, the PRC launched an attack in the border regions of Vietnam – China. The PRC attack was said to be a lesson for Vietnam which had tried to enter the PRC region.
To spur economic rebuilding, the 6th Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party in December 1986, launched a Vietnam Renovation Program (renewal) known as “Doi Moi” with the main program objective being in the economic field. Vietnam’s development programs, since the launch of the “Doi Moi” renovation program, are set forth in the Five-Year Development Plan.
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